MIHAILS HAZANS (University of Latvia)
Human values and supervisory responsibilities: A comparative evidence from the Baltic Sea region
Do employees with supervisory responsibilities differ from other workers in terms of human values, especially those potentially affecting the quality and efficiency of supervision? This paper applies data from rounds 7-9 of the European Social Survey to investigate the selection of employees into supervisory jobs in nine countries of the Baltic Sea region. The results suggest that in all countries considered, excluding Latvia, Openness to Change and Self-Enhancement are positively associated with the probability of holding a supervisory job, while Conservation (the set of values oriented at tradition, conformity and security) is negatively associated with the probability to be a supervisor. Self-Transcendence (the higher order value covering benevolence and universalism) is not a statistically significant determinant of being a supervisor in eight out of nine countries considered. However, in all countries but Poland and Latvia, models with specific measures of basic values (rather than aggregated higher order values measures) reveal strongly significant positive effects of items related to understanding and/or helpfulness – motivations associated with universalism and benevolence, while other effects are in line with those of the higher order values.
Authors: Mihails Hazans, Jaan Masso, Per Botolf Maurseth, Tiiu Paas
This article is involved in the LIFT project financed by EEA and Norway Grants Programme 2014-2021.
Narva 18 - 1017,
MATHIAS JUUST (University of Tartu),
URMAS VARBLANE (University of Tartu)
Firm resources and response to a negative export shock: 2014 Russian embargo on the Western food exporters
This study examines the effects of the 2014 Russian food embargo against the West on Estonian exporters. The quantitative part one quantifies the embargo effect on the exports and productivity of Estonian firms affected, finding that this trade shock induced trade diversion that was higher for firms with higher initial productivity and exposure to the Russian market. The qualitative part two investigates the firm-level responses of three major embargoed Estonian dairy producers that had a high dependence on the Russian market before 2014. We find that conducting effective innovation activities and adjusting in response to the embargo was more successful for firms with a more diverse set of pre-embargo resources and capabilities, especially regarding strategic management and business networks.
LIIS ROOSAAR (University of Tartu)
Gender wage gap in the University of Tartu
We study the gender wage gap at the University of Tartu (UT) using the administrative data of all the academic employees from 2012-2021. We show general trends in the gap in UT, how it compares to the national average gender wage gap and what explains the gap in UT. Two special topics include the child penalty in academia and the role of outside options or reservation wages on the gap in UT. The results indicate that differences of mean wages between fields employing mostly women or mostly men are not behind the gap, but differences in occupations explain the majority of it. Education is also an important factor as the share of men in UT with a PhD degree is larger than that of women. Child penalty is likely one of the factors that hold women back from entering higher occupational ranks in UT. We also show that there are vivid differences between fields in the reservation wage outside academia.
Authors: Jaan Masso, Jaanika Meriküll, Liis Roosaar, Kärt Rõigas, Tiiu Paas
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